Synchronization of mechanical oscillators by optical forces is a topic that has been much explored in recent years, for example, in the context of SiN microdisk resonators. Here we report stable long-term synchronization of the core vibrations of three different photonic crystal fibers, driven intra-cavity by a 2 GHz train of timing-modulated pulses in a high harmonic opto-acoustically mode-locked fiber laser. The core resonances are equally spaced in frequency and are coupled purely by the optical field. Under the correct conditions, they become stably synchronized, being simultaneously driven by the timing-modulated pulse train. Floquet–Bloch theory, in which the pulses are treated as particles trapped in potential wells and coupled by optomechanical back-action, describes the complex temporal dynamics observed in the experiments. This unique system provides a novel means of modifying the temporal structure of pulse trains running at few-gigahertz repetition rates.
Progress toward third-order parametric down-conversion in optical fibers
A. Cavanna, J. Hammer, C. Okoth, E. Ortiz-Ricardo, H. Cruz-Ramirez, K. Garay-Palmett, A. B. U’Ren, M. Frosz, X. Jiang, et al.
Optical fibers have been considered an optimal platform for third-order parametric down-conversion since they can potentially overcome the weak third-order nonlinearity by their long interaction length. Here we present, in the first part, a theoretical derivation for the conversion rate both in the case of spontaneous generation and in the presence of a seed beam. Then we review three types of optical fibers and we examine their properties in terms of conversion efficiency and practical feasibility.
Pulse-repetition-rate tuning of a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser using a tapered photonic crystal fiber
Dung-Han Yeh, Wenbin He, Meng Pang, Xin Jiang, Gordon K. L. Wong, Philip St J. Russell
Strong enhancement of optoacoustic interactions in the micrometer-sized core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) enables stable, harmonic mode locking of a soliton fiber laser
at GHz frequencies. Here we report that by tapering the PCF during the draw, the optoacoustic gain bandwidth can be broadened to ∼47 MHz, more than 3 times wider than in the untapered fiber. This made possible broad pulse-repetition-rate tuning over 66 MHz (from 2.042 to 2.108 GHz) of an optoacoustically mode-locked soliton fiber laser. Within this tuning range, the harmonically mode-locked pulse trains at the laser output were observed to be quite robust, with better than 40 dB supermode suppression ratio, sub-ps pulse timing jitter, and <0.2% relative intensity noise. This gigahertz-rate, near-infrared soliton fiber laser has remarkable pulse-rate tunability and low noise level, and has important potential applications in frequency metrology, high-speed optical sampling, and fiber telecommunications.
Three-dimensional holographic optical manipulation through a high-numerical-aperture soft-glass multimode fibre
Ivo T. Leite, Sergey Turtaev, Xin Jiang, Martin Siler, Alfred Cuschieri, Philip St. J. Russell, Tomas Cizmar
Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) hold great promise for many applications in biophotonics, allowing the creation and measurement of minuscule forces on biomolecules, molecular motors and cells. Geometries used in HOT currently rely on bulk optics, and their exploitation in vivo is compromised by the optically turbid nature of tissues. We present an alternative HOT approach in which multiple three-dimensional (3D) traps are introduced through a high-numerical-aperture multimode optical fibre, thus enabling an equally versatile means of manipulation through channels having cross-section comparable to the size of a single cell. Our work demonstrates real-time manipulation of 3D arrangements of micro-objects, as well as manipulation inside otherwise inaccessible cavities. We show that the traps can be formed over fibre lengths exceeding 100 mm and positioned with nanometric resolution. The results provide the basis for holographic manipulation and other high-numerical-aperture techniques, including advanced microscopy, through single-core-fibre endoscopes deep inside living tissues and other complex environments.
Photochemistry in a soft-glass single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibre
Ana M. Cubillas, Xin Jiang, Tijmen G. Euser, Nicola Taccardi, Bastian J. M. Etzold, Peter Wasserscheid, Philip St. J. Russell
A hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (HC-PCF), guided by photonic bandgap effects or anti-resonant reflection, offers strong light confinement and long photochemical interaction lengths in a microscale channel filled with a solvent of refractive index lower than that of glass (usually fused silica). These unique advantages have motivated its recent use as a highly efficient and versatile microreactor for liquid-phase photochemistry and catalysis. In this work, we use a single-ring HC-PCF made from a high-index soft glass, thus enabling photochemical experiments in higher index solvents. The optimized light-matter interaction in the fibre is used to strongly enhance the reaction rate in a proof-of-principle photolysis reaction in toluene.
Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber for single-mode phase matched generation
of third harmonic and photon triplets
Andrea Cavanna, Felix Just, Xin Jiang, Gerd Leuchs, Maria V. Chekhova, Philip St. J. Russell, Nicolas Y. Joly
We demonstrate that a high-numerical-aperture photonic crystal fiber allows lensless focusing at an unparalleled resolution by complex wavefront shaping. This paves the way toward high-resolution imaging exceeding the capabilities of imaging with multi-core single-mode optical fibers. We analyze the beam waist and power in the focal spot on the fiber output using different types of fibers and different wavefront shaping approaches. We show that the complex wavefront shaping technique, together with a properly designed multimode photonic crystal fiber, enables us to create a tightly focused spot on the desired position on the fiber output facet with a subwavelength beam waist. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America
Solid-core and hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for generation of bright ultraviolet light (Conference Presentation)
Nicolas Y. Joly, Xin Jiang, John C. Travers, Alexey Ermolov, Philip St. J. Russell
Soliton fibre lasers mode-locked at a high harmonic of their round-trip frequency have many potential applications, from telecommunications to data storage(1). Control of multiple pulses in passively mode-locked fibre lasers has, however, proved very difficult to achieve. This has recently changed with the advent of fibre lasers mode-locked by intense optomechanical interactions in a short length of photonic crystal fibre(2,3). Optomechanical coupling between cavity modes gives rise to highly stable, optomechanically bound, laser soliton states. The repetition rate of these states corresponds to the mechanical resonant frequency in the photonic crystal fibre core(4), which can be a few gigahertz. Here we show that this system can be successfully used for programmable generation and storage of gigahertz-rate soliton sequences over many hours.
Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN glass photonic crystal fiber with six nanobore cores
Xin Jiang, Nicolas Y. Joly, Martin A. Finger, Fehim Babic, Meng Pang, Rafal Sopalla, Michael H. Frosz, Samuel Poulain, Marcel Poulain, et al.
Engineering of a Ge-Te-Se glass fibre evanescent wave spectroscopic (FEWS) mid-IR chemical sensor for the analysis of food and pharmaceutical products
Xin Jiang, Animesh Jha
SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL
Using an unclad multimode Ge-Te-Se based chalcogenide glass fibre, simple design robust fibre evanescent wave spectroscopic (FEWS) sensor is demonstrated. Methodologies adopted for material development and fibre drawing are discussed in the following steps: purification of raw materials for high spectral purity, fabrication of glass and fibre preform leading to fibre drawing. The fabricated fibre has a minimum loss of 1.4 dB/m at 4.2 mu m, and less than 3 dB/m between 1.5 and 6.3 mu m. The feasibility of using such a fibre for evanescent wave spectroscopic sensing has been verified by using the finite-element (FE) computation technique. Supported optical modes as well as corresponding penetration depths of evanescent fields from different modes are discussed. Based on the FE computation, a FEWS sensor consisting of a 40 cm Ge-Te-Se fibre, coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury-cadmium-tellurium (MCT) detector, is demonstrated. The active length along this fibre employed for sensing is 3 cm. Based on FEWS design, the fabricated fibre sensor was used for the analysis of chemicals, namely the acetone, ethanol, methanol, tocopherol (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), fresh orange and lemon juice. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stable subpicosecond soliton fiber laser passively mode-locked by gigahertz acoustic resonance in photonic crystal fiber core
M. Pang, X. Jiang, W. He, G. K. L. Wong, G. Onishchukov, N. Y. Joly, G. Ahmed, C. R. Menyuk, P. St J. Russell
Ultrafast lasers with high repetition rates are of considerable interest in applications such as optical fiber telecommunications, frequency metrology, high-speed optical sampling, and arbitrary waveform generation. For fiber lasers mode-locked at the cavity round-trip frequency, the pulse repetition rate is limited to tens or hundreds of megahertz by the meter-order cavity lengths. Here we report a soliton fiber laser passively mode-locked at a high harmonic (similar to 2 GHz) of its fundamental frequency by means of optoacoustic interactions in the small solid glass core of a short length ( 60 cm) of photonic crystal fiber. Due to tight confinement of both light and vibrations, the optomechanical interaction is strongly enhanced. The long-lived acoustic vibration provides strong modulation of the refractive index in the photonic crystal fiber core, fixing the soliton spacing in the laser cavity and allowing stable mode-locking, with low pulse timing jitter, at gigahertz repetition rates. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America
Deep-ultraviolet to mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in solid-core ZBLAN photonic crystal fibre
Xin Jiang, Nicolas Y. Joly, Martin A. Finger, Fehim Babic, Gordon K. L. Wong, John C. Travers, Philip St J. Russell
Silica-based photonic crystal fibre has proven highly successful for supercontinuum generation, with smooth and flat spectral power densities. However, fused silica glass suffers from strong material absorption in the mid-infrared (>2,500 nm), as well as ultraviolet-related optical damage (solarization), which limits performance and lifetime in the ultraviolet (<380 nm). Supercontinuum generation in silica photonic crystal fibre is therefore only possible between these limits. A number of alternative glasses have been used to extend the mid-infrared performance, including chalcogenides, fluorides and heavy-metal oxides, but none has extended the ultraviolet performance. Here, we describe the successful fabrication (using the stack-and-draw technique) of a ZBLAN photonic crystal fibre with a high air-filling fraction, a small solid core, nanoscale features and near-perfect structure. We also report its use in the generation of ultrabroadband, long-term stable, supercontinua spanning more than three octaves in the spectral range 200-2,500 nm.
Orbital-angular-momentum-preserving helical Bloch modes in twisted photonic crystal fiber
X. M. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, M. H. Frosz, F. Babic, G. Ahmed, X. Jiang, T. G. Euser, P. St. J. Russell
In optical fiber telecommunications, there is much current work on the use of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes for increasing channel capacity. Here we study the properties of a helically twisted photonic crystal fiber (PCF) that preserves the chirality of OAM modes of the same order, i.e., it inhibits scattering between an order +1 mode to an order -1 mode. This is achieved by thermally inducing a helical twist in a PCF with a novel three-bladed Y-shaped core. The effect is seen for twist periods of a few millimeters or less. We develop a novel scalar theory to analyze the properties of the twisted fiber, based on a helicoidal extension to Bloch wave theory. It yields results that are in excellent agreement with full finite element simulations. Since twisted PCFs with complex core structures can be produced in long lengths from a fiber drawing tower, they are of potential interest for increasing channel capacity in optical telecommunications, but the result is also of interest to the photonic crystal community, where a new kind of guided helical Bloch mode is sure to excite interest, and among the spin-orbit coupling community. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials
PROGRESS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE
Germanium oxide (GeO2) and tellurium oxide (TeO2) based glasses are classed as the heavy metal oxide glasses, with phonon energies ranging between 740 cm(-1) and 880 cm(-1). These two types of glasses exhibit unique combinations of optical and spectroscopic properties, together with their attractive environmental resistance and mechanical properties. Engineering such a combination of structural, optical and spectroscopic properties is only feasible as a result of structural variability in these two types of glasses, since more than one structural units (TeO4 bi-pyramid, TeO3 trigonal pyramid, and TeO3+delta polyhedra) in tellurite and (GeO4 tetrahedron, GeO3 octahedron) in GeO2 based glasses may exist, depending on composition. The presence of multiple structural moities creates a range of dipole environments which is ideal for engineering broad spectral bandwidth rare-earth ion doped photonic device materials, suitable for laser and amplifier devices. Tellurite glasses were discovered in 1952, but remained virtually unknown to materials and device engineers until 1994 when unusual spectroscopic, nonlinear and dispersion properties of alkali and alkaline earth modified tellurite glasses and fibres were reported. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of Pr3+, Nd3+, Er3+ and Tm3+ doped tellurite glasses revealed its potential for laser and amplifier devices for optical communication wavelengths. This review summarises the thermal and viscosity properties of tellurite and germanate glasses for fibre fabrication and compares the linear loss for near and mid-IR device engineering. The aspects of glass preform fabrication for fibre engineering is discussed by emphasising the raw materials processing with casting of preforms and fibre fabrication. The spectroscopic properties of tellurite and germanate glasses have been analysed with special emphasis on oscillator strength and radiative rate characteristics for visible, near IR and mid-IR emission. The review also compares the latest results in the engineering of lasers and amplifiers, based on fibres for optical communication and mid-IR. The achievements in the areas of near-IR waveguide and mid-IR bulk glass, fibre, and waveguide lasers are discussed. The latest landmark results in mode-locked 2 mu m bulk glass lasers sets the precedence for engineering nonlinear and other laser devices for accessing the inaccessible parts of the mid-IR spectrum and discovering new applications for the future. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Single-mode hollow-core photonic crystal fiber made from soft glass
X. Jiang, T. G. Euser, A. Abdolvand, F. Babic, F. Tani, N. Y. Joly, J. C. Travers, P. St J. Russell
We demonstrate the first soft-glass hollow core photonic crystal fiber. The fiber is made from a high-index lead-silicate glass (Schott SF6, refractive index 1.82 at 500 nm). Fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique, the fiber incorporates a 7-cell hollow core embedded in a highly uniform 6-layer cladding structure that resembles a kagome-like lattice. Effective single mode guidance of light is observed from 750 to 1050 nm in a large mode area (core diameter similar to 30 mu m) with a low loss of 0.74 dB/m. The underlying guidance mechanism of the fiber is investigated using finite element modeling. The fiber is promising for applications requiring single mode guidance in a large mode area, such as particle guidance, fluid and gas filled devices. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America
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