4pi Photon Atom Coupling

When focusing light onto a single atom the coupling of the photons to the atom is determined by the properties of the focused light mode. Optimum coupling is achieved for an electric dipole mode, a mode that is incident onto the atom from a solid angle of 4π. We generate such a mode by focusing with a deep parabolic mirror and couple this mode to a single ion. We also employ dipole modes for the optical trapping of nano particles in a parabolic mirror as well as for studies on non-linear optics in noble gases under extreme focusing conditions.

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