Modulational instability and spectral broadening of vortex modes in chiral photonic crystal fibers
Paul Roth, Philip Russell, Michael Frosz, Yang Chen, Gordon Wong
Journal of Lightwave Technology
We report on intra- and inter-modal four-wave-mixing (FWM) in N-fold rotationally symmetric (C_N) single- and multi-core chiral photonic crystal fiber (PCF), created by spinning the preform during fiber drawing. The non-circular modal field is forced to rotate as it propagates along the fiber, resulting in circular birefringence and robust maintenance of circular polarization state. Multi-core chiral C_N PCF supports vortex-carrying helical Bloch modes (HBMs) in which the degeneracy between clockwise and counter-clockwise vortices is lifted. This makes possible new kinds of intermodal polarization modulational instability (PMI). We develop PMI theory for vortex HBMs, and illustrate the results by a series of experiments in which two or more PMI sidebands with different vorticities and polarization states are selectively generated by adjusting the polarization state and topological charge of the pump light. In every case both the topological charge and the spin of the pump light are conserved. We also report generation of a broadband supercontinuum in a single circularly polarized vortex mode.
Selective phase filtering of charged beams with laser-driven antiresonant hollow-core fibers
Luca Genovese, Max Kellermeier, Frank Mayet, Klaus Floettmann, Gordon Wong, Michael Frosz, Ralph Assmann, Philip Russell, Francois Lemery
Physical Review Research
Emerging accelerator concepts increasingly rely on the combination of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation with electron beams, enabling longitudinal phase space manipulation which supports a variety of advanced applications. The handshake between electron beams and radiation is conventionally provided by magnetic undulators which unfortunately require a balance between the electron beam energy, undulator parameters, and laser wavelength. Here we propose a scheme using laser-driven large-core antiresonant optical fibers to manipulate electron beams. We explore two general cases using TM01 and HE11 modes. In the former, we show that large energy modulations O(100 keV). can be achieved while maintaining the overall electron beam quality. Further, we show that by using larger field strengths O(100 MV/m) the resulting transverse forces can be exploited with beam-matching conditions to filter arbitrary phases from the modulated electron bunch, leading to the production of ≈100 attosecond FWHM microbunches. Finally, we also investigate the application of the transverse dipole HE11 mode and find it suitable for supporting time-resolved electron beam measurements with sub-attosecond resolution. We expect the findings to be widely appealing to high-charge pump-probe experiments, metrology, and accelerator science.
Optical Vortex Brillouin Laser
Xinglin Zeng, Philip Russell, Yang Chen, Zheqi Wang, Gordon Wong, Paul Roth, Michael Frosz, Birgit Stiller
Laser & Photonics Reviews
Optical vortices, which have been extensively studied over the last decades, offer an additional degree of freedom useful in many applications, such as optical tweezers and quantum control. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), providing a narrow linewidth and a strong nonlinear response, has been used to realize quasi-continuous wave lasers. Here, stable oscillation of optical vortices and acoustic modes in a Brillouin laser based on chiral photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is reported, which robustly supports helical Bloch modes (HBMs) that carry circularly polarized optical vortex and display circular birefringence. A narrow-linewidth Brillouin fiber laser that stably emits 1st- and 2nd-order vortex-carrying HBMs is implemented. Angular momentum conservation selection rules dictate that pump and backward Brillouin signals have opposite topological charge and spin. Additionally, it is shown that when the chiral PCF is placed within a laser ring cavity, the linewidth-narrowing associated with lasing permits the peak of the Brillouin gain that corresponds to acoustic mode to be measured with resolution of 10 kHz and accuracy of 520 kHz. The results pave the way to a new generation of vortex-carrying SBS systems with applications in optical tweezers, quantum information processing, and vortex-carrying nonreciprocal systems.
Nonreciprocal vortex isolator via topology-selective stimulated Brillouin scattering
Xinglin Zeng, Philip Russell, Christian Wolff , Michael Frosz, Gordon Wong, Birgit Stiller
Optical nonreciprocity, which breaks the symmetry between forward and backward propagating optical waves, has become vital in photonic systems and enables many key applications. So far, all the existing nonreciprocal systems are implemented for linearly or randomly polarized fundamental modes. Optical vortex modes, with wavefronts that spiral around the central axis of propagation, have been extensively studied over the past decades and offer an additional degree of freedom useful in many applications. Here, we report a light-driven nonreciprocal isolation system for optical vortex modes based on topology-selective stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in chiral photonic crystal fiber. The device can be reconfigured as an amplifier or an isolator by adjusting the frequency of the control signal. The experimental results show vortex isolation of 22 decibels (dB), which is at the state of the art in fundamental mode isolators using SBS. This device may find applications in optical communications, fiber lasers, quantum information processing, and optical tweezers.
Strong circular dichroism for the HE11 mode in
twisted single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal
Paul Roth, Yang Chen, Mehmet Can Günendi, Ramin Beravat, Nitin Edavalath, Michael Frosz, Goran Ahmed, Gordon Wong, Philip Russell
Recent work has revealed that the dispersion relation, given inOptica 5, 1315 (2018), for helicalBloch modes in a ring of capillaries surrounding a central hollowcore, is incorrect.Herewe correct this error and provide a revised version of Fig. 2. The overall conclusions of the original paper are unaffected.
Erratum to “Bragg Reflection and Conversion Between Helical Bloch Modes in Chiral Three-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber”
Sébastien Loranger, Yang Chen, Paul Roth, Michael Frosz, Gordon Wong, Philip Russell
Journal of Lightwave Technology
The dispersion relation for the helical Bloch modes in this paper contains an error, which affects Equation (3) in the original manuscript, as well as Fig. 2. Otherwise the conclusions of the paper are unaffected.
Stimulated Brillouin scattering in chiral photonic crystal fiber
Xinglin Zeng, Wenbin He, Michael Frosz, Andreas Geilen, Paul Roth, Gordon Wong, Philip Russell, Birgit Stiller
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) has many applications; for example, in sensing, microwave photonics, and signal processing. Here, we report the first experimental study of SBS in chiral photonic crystal fiber (PCF), which displays optical activity and robustly maintains circular polarization states against external perturbations. As a result, circularly polarized pump light is cleanly backscattered into a Stokes signal with the orthogonal circular polarization state, as is required by angular momentum conservation. By comparison, untwisted PCF generates a Stokes signal with an unpredictable polarization state, owing to its high sensitivity to external perturbations. We use chiral PCF to realize a circularly polarized continuous-wave Brillouin laser. The results pave the way for a new generation of stable circularly polarized SBS systems with applications in quantum manipulation, optical tweezers, optical gyroscopes, and fiber sensors.
Cross-phase modulational instability of circularly polarized helical Bloch modes carrying optical vortices in a chiral three-core photonic crystal fiber
Paul Roth, Michael Frosz, Linda Weise, Philip Russell, Gordon Wong
We report the first, to the best of our knowledge, observation of cross-phase modulational instability (XPMI) of circularly polarized helical Bloch modes carrying optical vortices in a twisted photonic crystal fiber with a three-fold symmetric core, formed by spinning the fiber preform during the draw. When the fiber is pumped by a superposition of left-circular polarization (LCP) and right-circular polarization (RCP) modes, a pair of orthogonal circularly polarized sidebands of opposite topological charge is generated. When, on the other hand, a pure LCP (or RCP) mode is launched, the XPMI gain is zero, and no sidebands are seen. This observation has not been seen before in any system and is unique to chiral structures with N-fold rotational symmetry. The polarization state and topological charge of the generated sidebands are measured. By decomposing the helical Bloch modes into their azimuthal harmonics, we are able to deduce the selection rules for the appearance of modulational instability sidebands. We showed that the four waves in the nonlinear mixing process must exhibit the same set of azimuthal harmonic orders.
Bragg Reflection and Conversion Between Helical Bloch Modes in Chiral Three-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber
Sébastien Loranger, Yang Chen, Paul Roth, Michael Frosz, Gordon Wong, Philip Russell
Journal of Lightwave Technology
Optical fiber modes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have many applications, for example in mode-division-multiplexing for optical communications. The natural guided modes of N-fold rotationally symmetric optical fibers, such as most photonic crystal fibers, are helical Bloch modes (HBMs). HBMs consist of a superposition of azimuthal harmonics (order m) of order l_A(m)=l_A(0)+mN. When such fibers are twisted, these modes become circularly and azimuthally birefringent, that is to say HBMs with equal and opposite values of l_A(0) and spin s are non-degenerate. In this article we report the use of Bragg mirrors to reflect and convert HBMs in a twisted three-core photonic crystal fiber, and show that by writing a tilted fiber Bragg grating (FBG), reflection between HBMs of different orders becomes possible, with high wavelength-selectivity. We measure the near-field phase and amplitude distribution of the reflected HBMs interferometrically, and demonstrate good agreement with theory. This new type of FBG has potential applications in fiber lasers, sensing, quantum optics, and in any situation where creation, conversion, and reflection of OAM-carrying modes is required.
Full-field characterization of helical Bloch modes guided in twisted coreless photonic crystal fiber
Paul Roth, Gordon Wong, Michael Frosz, Goran Ahmed, Philip Russell
It was recently reported that a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with no structural core guides light if a permanent chiral twist is introduced by spinning the fiber preform during the draw. The intriguing guidance mechanism behind this novel effect has many remarkable features; for example, it intrinsically supports circularly polarized helical Bloch modes (HBMs) that carry multiple optical vortices, making twisted PCFs of interest in fields such as optical micromanipulation, imaging, quantum optics, and optical communications. Here we report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that a twisted coreless PCF supports not just one but a family of guided HBMs, each member of which has a unique transverse field distribution and harmonic spectrum. By making detailed interferometric measurements of the near-field phase and amplitude distributions of HBMs, and expanding them as a series of Bessel beams, we are able to extract the amplitude of each azimuthal and radial HBM harmonic. Good agreement is found with the numerical solutions of Maxwell’s equations. The results shed light on the properties of this curious new optical phenomenon.
Generation of broadband circularly polarized supercontinuum light in twisted photonic crystal fibers
Rafal Sopalla, Gordon Wong, Nicolas Joly, Michael Frosz, Xin Jiang, Goran Ahmed, Philip Russell
We compare the properties of the broadband supercontinuum (SC) generated in twisted and untwisted solid-core photonic crystal fibers when pumped by circularly polarized<br>40 picosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm. In the helically twisted fiber, fabricated by spinning the preform during the draw, the SC is robustly circularly polarized across its entire<br>spectrum whereas, in the straight fiber, axial fluctuations in linear birefringence and polarization-dependent nonlinear effects cause the polarization state to vary randomly with the wavelength. Theoretical modelling confirms the experimental results. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibers permit the generation of pure circularly polarized SC light with excellent polarization stability against fluctuations in input power and environmental perturbations.
Pulse-repetition-rate tuning of a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser using a tapered photonic crystal fiber
Dung-Han Yeh, Wenbin He, Meng Pang, Xin Jiang, Gordon K. L. Wong, Philip St J. Russell
Strong enhancement of optoacoustic interactions in the micrometer-sized core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) enables stable, harmonic mode locking of a soliton fiber laser<br>at GHz frequencies. Here we report that by tapering the PCF during the draw, the optoacoustic gain bandwidth can be broadened to ∼47 MHz, more than 3 times wider than in the untapered fiber. This made possible broad pulse-repetition-rate tuning over 66 MHz (from 2.042 to 2.108 GHz) of an optoacoustically mode-locked soliton fiber laser. Within this tuning range, the harmonically mode-locked pulse trains at the laser output were observed to be quite robust, with better than 40 dB supermode suppression ratio, sub-ps pulse timing jitter, and <0.2% relative intensity noise. This gigahertz-rate, near-infrared soliton fiber laser has remarkable pulse-rate tunability and low noise level, and has important potential applications in frequency metrology, high-speed optical sampling, and fiber telecommunications.
Strong circular dichroism for the HE11 mode in twisted single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fiber
Paul Roth, Yang Chen, Mehmet Can Günendi, Ramin Beravat, Nitin N. Edavalath, Michael H. Frosz, Goran Ahmed, Gordon K. L. Wong, Philip St. J. Russell
We report a series of experimental, analytical, and numerical studies demonstrating strong circular dichroism for the HE11-like core mode in helically twisted hollow-core single-ring photonic crystal fiber (SR-PCF), formed by spinning the preform during fiber drawing. In the SR-PCFs studied, the hollow core is surrounded by a single ring of nontouching capillaries. Coupling between these capillaries results in the formation of helical Bloch modes carrying orbital angular momentum. When twisted, strong circular birefringence appears in the ring, so that coupling to the core mode is possible for only one circular polarization state. The result is a SR-PCF that acts as a circular polarizer, offering 1.4 dB/m for the low-loss polarization state and 9.7 dB/m for the high-loss state over a 25 nm band centered at 1593 nm wavelength. In addition, we report for the first time that the vector fields of the helical Bloch modes are perfectly periodic when evaluated in cylindrical coordinates. Such fibers have many potential applications, such as generating circularly polarized light in gas-filled SR-PCF and realizing polarizing elements in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet.
Long-range optical trapping and binding of microparticles in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre
Dmitry S. Bykov, Shangran Xie, Richard Zeltner, Andrey Machnev, Gordon K. L. Wong, Tijmen G. Euser, Philip St. J. Russell
Optically levitated micro- and nanoparticles offer an ideal playground for investigating photon–phonon interactions over macroscopic distances. Here we report the observation of long-range optical binding of multiple levitated microparticles, mediated by intermodal scattering and interference inside the evacuated core of a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (HC-PCF). Three polystyrene particles with a diameter of 1 μm are stably bound together with an inter-particle distance of ~40 μm, or 50 times longer than the wavelength of the trapping laser. The levitated bound-particle array can be translated to-and-fro over centimetre distances along the fibre. When evacuated to a gas pressure of 6 mbar, the collective mechanical modes of the bound-particle array are able to be observed. The measured inter-particle distance at equilibrium and mechanical eigenfrequencies are supported by a novel analytical formalism modelling the dynamics of the binding process. The HC-PCF system offers a unique platform for investigating the rich optomechanical dynamics of arrays of levitated particles in a well-isolated and protected environment.
Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres
P. St. J. Russell, Ramin Beravat, G. K. L. Wong
PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL
AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left-and rightspinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic 'space', cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of 'numerical experiments' based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame.
This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Higher-order mode suppression in twisted single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibers
N. N. Edavalath, M. C. Guenendi, R. Beravat, G. K. L. Wong, M. H. Frosz, J. -M. Menard, P. St. J. Russell
A hollow-core single-ring photonic crystal fiber (SR-PCF) consists of a ring of capillaries arranged around a central hollow core. Spinning the preform during drawing introduces a continuous helical twist, offering a novel means of controlling the modal properties of hollow-core SR-PCF. For example, twisting geometrically increases the effective axial propagation constant of the LP01-like modes of the capillaries, providing a means of optimizing the suppression of HOMs, which occurs when the LP11-like core mode phase-matches to the LP01-like modes of the surrounding capillaries. (In a straight fiber, optimum suppression occurs for a capillary-to-core diameter ratio d/D = 0.682.) Twisting also introduces circular birefringence (to be studied in a future Letter) and has a remarkable effect on the transverse intensity profiles of the higher-order core modes, forcing the two-lobed LP11-like mode in the untwisted fiber to become three-fold symmetric in the twisted case. These phenomena are explored by means of extensive numerical modeling, an analytical model, and a series of experiments. Prism-assisted side-coupling is used to measure the losses, refractive indices, and near-field patterns of individual fiber modes in both the straight and twisted cases. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America
Twist-induced guidance in coreless photonic crystal fiber: A helical
channel for light
Ramin Beravat, Gordon K. L. Wong, Michael H. Frosz, Xiao Ming Xi, Philip St. J. Russell
Continuously twisted solid-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) exhibits pure circular birefringence (optical activity), making it ideal for current sensors based on the Faraday effect. By numerical analysis, we identify the PCF geometry for which the circular birefringence (which scales linearly with twist rate) is a maximum. For silica-air PCF, this occurs at a shape parameter (diameter-to-spacing ratio of the hollow channels) of 0.37 and a scale parameter (spacing-to-wavelength) of 1.51. This result is confirmed experimentally by testing a range of different structures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of twisted PCF as a current sensor, a length of fiber is placed on the axis of a 7.6 cm long solenoid, and the Faraday rotation is measured at different values of dc current. The system is then used to chart the wavelength dependence of the Verdet constant. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America
Enhanced optical activity and circular dichroism in twisted photonic crystal fiber
G. K. L. Wong, X. M. Xi, M. H. Frosz, P. St. J. Russell
We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the core-guided mode in helically twisted photonic crystal fiber exhibits resonantly enhanced optical activity and circular dichroism in the vicinity of anti-crossings with leaky orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in the cladding. This arises because the anti-crossings for left and right circularly polarized core modes occur at slightly different wavelengths. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America
Stable subpicosecond soliton fiber laser passively mode-locked by gigahertz acoustic resonance in photonic crystal fiber core
M. Pang, X. Jiang, W. He, G. K. L. Wong, G. Onishchukov, N. Y. Joly, G. Ahmed, C. R. Menyuk, P. St J. Russell
Ultrafast lasers with high repetition rates are of considerable interest in applications such as optical fiber telecommunications, frequency metrology, high-speed optical sampling, and arbitrary waveform generation. For fiber lasers mode-locked at the cavity round-trip frequency, the pulse repetition rate is limited to tens or hundreds of megahertz by the meter-order cavity lengths. Here we report a soliton fiber laser passively mode-locked at a high harmonic (similar to 2 GHz) of its fundamental frequency by means of optoacoustic interactions in the small solid glass core of a short length ( 60 cm) of photonic crystal fiber. Due to tight confinement of both light and vibrations, the optomechanical interaction is strongly enhanced. The long-lived acoustic vibration provides strong modulation of the refractive index in the photonic crystal fiber core, fixing the soliton spacing in the laser cavity and allowing stable mode-locking, with low pulse timing jitter, at gigahertz repetition rates. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America
Deep-ultraviolet to mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in solid-core ZBLAN photonic crystal fibre
Xin Jiang, Nicolas Y. Joly, Martin A. Finger, Fehim Babic, Gordon K. L. Wong, John C. Travers, Philip St J. Russell
Silica-based photonic crystal fibre has proven highly successful for supercontinuum generation, with smooth and flat spectral power densities. However, fused silica glass suffers from strong material absorption in the mid-infrared (>2,500 nm), as well as ultraviolet-related optical damage (solarization), which limits performance and lifetime in the ultraviolet (<380 nm). Supercontinuum generation in silica photonic crystal fibre is therefore only possible between these limits. A number of alternative glasses have been used to extend the mid-infrared performance, including chalcogenides, fluorides and heavy-metal oxides, but none has extended the ultraviolet performance. Here, we describe the successful fabrication (using the stack-and-draw technique) of a ZBLAN photonic crystal fibre with a high air-filling fraction, a small solid core, nanoscale features and near-perfect structure. We also report its use in the generation of ultrabroadband, long-term stable, supercontinua spanning more than three octaves in the spectral range 200-2,500 nm.
Real-time Doppler-assisted tomography of microstructured fibers by side-scattering
Alessio Stefani, Michael H. Frosz, Tijmen G. Euser, Gordon K. L. Wong, Philip St. J. Russell
We introduce the concept of Doppler-assisted tomography (DAT) and show that it can be applied successfully to non-invasive imaging of the internal microstructure of a photonic crystal fiber. The fiber is spun at similar to 10 Hz around its axis and laterally illuminated with a laser beam. Monitoring the time-dependent Doppler shift of the light scattered by the hollow channels permits the azimuthal angle and radial position of individual channels to be measured. An inverse Radon transform is used to construct an image of the microstructure from the frequency-modulated scattered signal. We also show that DAT can image sub-wavelength features and monitor the structure along a tapered fiber, which is not possible using other techniques without cutting up the taper into several short pieces or filling it with index-matching oil. The non-destructive nature of DAT means that it could potentially be applied to image the fiber microstructure as it emerges from the drawing tower, or indeed to carry out tomography on any transparent microstructured cylindrical object. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Orbital-angular-momentum-preserving helical Bloch modes in twisted photonic crystal fiber
X. M. Xi, G. K. L. Wong, M. H. Frosz, F. Babic, G. Ahmed, X. Jiang, T. G. Euser, P. St. J. Russell
In optical fiber telecommunications, there is much current work on the use of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes for increasing channel capacity. Here we study the properties of a helically twisted photonic crystal fiber (PCF) that preserves the chirality of OAM modes of the same order, i.e., it inhibits scattering between an order +1 mode to an order -1 mode. This is achieved by thermally inducing a helical twist in a PCF with a novel three-bladed Y-shaped core. The effect is seen for twist periods of a few millimeters or less. We develop a novel scalar theory to analyze the properties of the twisted fiber, based on a helicoidal extension to Bloch wave theory. It yields results that are in excellent agreement with full finite element simulations. Since twisted PCFs with complex core structures can be produced in long lengths from a fiber drawing tower, they are of potential interest for increasing channel capacity in optical telecommunications, but the result is also of interest to the photonic crystal community, where a new kind of guided helical Bloch mode is sure to excite interest, and among the spin-orbit coupling community. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America
Optical Activity in Twisted Solid-Core Photonic Crystal Fibers
X. M. Xi, T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, P. St. J. Russell
In this Letter we show that, in spectral regions where there are no orbital cladding resonances to cause transmission loss, the core mode of a continuously twisted photonic crystal fiber (PCF) exhibits optical activity, and that the magnitude of the associated circular birefringence increases linearly with twist rate and is highly reproducible. In contrast to previous work on twist-induced circular birefringence, PCF has zero linear birefringence and an on-axis core, making the appearance of circular birefringence rather unexpected. A theoretical model based on symmetry properties and perturbation theory is developed and used to show that both spin and orbital angular momentum play a role in this effect. It turns out that the degenerate left-and right-circularly polarized modes of the untwisted PCF are not 100% circularly polarized but carry a small amount of orbital angular momentum caused by the interaction between the core mode and the hollow channels. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.143903
Measuring mechanical strain and twist using helical photonic crystal
Xiaoming Xi, Gordon K. L. Wong, Thomas Weiss, Philip St J. Russell
Solid-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a permanent helical twist exhibits dips in its transmission spectrum at certain wavelengths. These are associated with the formation of orbital angular momentum states in the cladding. Here we investigate the tuning of these states with mechanical torque and axial tension. The dip wavelengths are found to scale linearly with both axial strain and mechanical twist rate. Analysis shows that the tension-induced shift in resonance wavelength is determined both by the photoelastic effect and by the change in twist rate, while the torsion-induced wavelength shift depends only on the change in twist rate. Twisted PCF can act as an effective optically monitored torque-tension transducer, twist sensor, or strain gauge. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
Topological Zeeman effect and circular birefringence in twisted photonic
T. Weiss, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, S. M. Barnett, X. M. Xi, P. St. J. Russell
JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA B-OPTICAL PHYSICS
The propagation of light guided in optical fibers is affected in different ways by bending or twisting. Here we treat the polarization properties of twisted six-fold symmetric photonic crystal fibers. Using a coordinate frame that follows the twisting structure, we show that the governing equation for the fiber modes resembles the Pauli equation for electrons in weak magnetic fields. This implies index splitting between left and right circularly polarized modes, which are degenerate in the untwisted fiber. We develop a theoretical model, based on perturbation theory and symmetry properties, to predict the observable circular birefringence (i.e., optical activity) associated with this splitting. Our overall conclusion is that optical activity requires the rotational symmetry to be broken so as to allow coupling between different total angular momentum states. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
Nonlinear amplification of side-modes in frequency combs
R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, H. Hundertmark, S. P. Stark, G. K. L. Wong, P. St. J. Russell, T. W. Haensch, R. Holzwarth, et al.
We investigate how suppressed modes in frequency combs are modified upon frequency doubling and self-phase modulation. We find, both experimentally and by using a simplified model, that these side-modes are amplified relative to the principal comb modes. Whereas frequency doubling increases their relative strength by 6 dB, the growth due to self-phase modulation can be much stronger and generally increases with nonlinear propagation length. Upper limits for this effect are derived in this work. This behavior has implications for high-precision calibration of spectrographs with frequency combs used for example in astronomy. For this application, Fabry-Perot filter cavities are used to increase the mode spacing to exceed the resolution of the spectrograph. Frequency conversion and/or spectral broadening after non-perfect filtering reamplify the suppressed modes, which can lead to calibration errors. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America
Raman-free nonlinear optical effects in high pressure gas-filled hollow
M. Azhar, G. K. L. Wong, W. Chang, N. Y. Joly, P. St J. Russell
The effective Kerr nonlinearity of hollow-core kagome-style photonic crystal fiber (PCF) filled with argon gas increases to similar to 15% of that of bulk silica glass when the pressure is increased from 1 to 150 bar, while the zero dispersion wavelength shifts from 300 to 900 nm. The group velocity dispersion of the system is uniquely pressure-tunable over a wide range while avoiding Raman scattering-absent in noble gases-and having an extremely high optical damage threshold. As a result, detailed and well-controlled studies of nonlinear effects can be performed, in both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes, using only a fixed-frequency pump laser. For example, the absence of Raman scattering permits clean observation, at high powers, of the interaction between a modulational instability side-band and a soliton-created dispersive wave. Excellent agreement is obtained between numerical simulations and experimental results. The system has great potential for the realization of reconfigurable supercontinuum sources, wavelength convertors and short-pulse laser systems. (C)2013 Optical Society of America
Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted
Photonic Crystal Fiber
G. K. L. Wong, M. S. Kang, H. W. Lee, F. Biancalana, C. Conti, T. Weiss, P. St J. Russell
Spiral twisting offers additional opportunities for controlling the loss, dispersion, and polarization state of light in optical fibers with noncircular guiding cores. Here, we report an effect that appears in continuously twisted photonic crystal fiber. Guided by the helical lattice of hollow channels, cladding light is forced to follow a spiral path. This diverts a fraction of the axial momentum flow into the azimuthal direction, leading to the formation of discrete orbital angular momentum states at wavelengths that scale linearly with the twist rate. Core-guided light phase-matches topologically to these leaky states, causing a series of dips in the transmitted spectrum. Twisted photonic crystal fiber has potential applications in, for example, band-rejection filters and dispersion control.
Bright Spatially Coherent Wavelength-Tunable Deep-UV Laser Source Using
an Ar-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber
N.Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hoelzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, P. St. J. Russell
We report on the spectral broadening of similar to 1 mu J 30 fs pulses propagating in an Ar-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. In contrast with supercontinuum generation in a solid-core photonic crystal fiber, the absence of Raman and unique pressure-controlled dispersion results in efficient emission of dispersive waves in the deep-UV region. The UV light emerges in the single-lobed fundamental mode and is tunable from 200 to 320 nm by varying the pulse energy and gas pressure. The setup is extremely simple, involving <1 m of a gas-filled photonic crystal fiber, and the UV signal is stable and bright, with experimental IR to deep-UV conversion efficiencies as high as 8 %. The source is of immediate interest in applications demanding high spatial coherence, such as laser lithography or confocal microscopy.
Measurement of group-velocity dispersion of Bloch modes in
photonic-crystal-fiber rocking filters
G. K. L. Wong, L. Zang, M. S. Kang, P. St. J. Russell
We use low-coherence interferometry to measure the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of the fast and slow Bloch modes of structural rocking filters, produced by twisting a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber to and fro while scanning a focused CO(2) laser beam along it. The GVD curves in the vicinity of the resonant wavelength differ dramatically from those of the unperturbed fiber, suggesting that rocking filters could be used in the optimization of, e.g., four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment. (C) 2010 Optical Society of America
Pressure-controlled phase matching to third harmonic in Ar-filled
hollow-core photonic crystal fiber
J. Nold, P. Hoelzer, N. Y. Joly, G. K. L. Wong, A. Nazarkin, A. Podlipensky, M. Scharrer, P. St J. Russell
We report tunable third-harmonic generation (THG) in an Ar-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, pumped by broadband < 2 mu J, 30 fs pulses from an amplified Ti:sapphire laser system. The overall dispersion is precisely controlled by balancing the negative dielectric susceptibility of the waveguide against the positive susceptibility of the gas. We demonstrate THG to a higher-order guided mode and show that the phase-matched UV wavelength is tunable by adjusting the gas pressure. (C) 2010 Optical Society of America