Ultralong Imaging Range Chromatic Confocal Microscopy
Gargi Sharma, Kanwarpal Singh
Advanced Photonics Research
Confocal microscopy is regularly used in cellular research but unfortunately, the imaging is restricted to a single plane. Chromatic confocal microscopy (CCM) offers the possibility to image multiple planes simultaneously, thus providing a manifold increase in the imaging speed, whereas eliminating the need for z-axis scanning. Standard chromatic confocal systems have a limited imaging range of the order of a few hundreds of micrometers which limits their applications. Herein, using a single zinc selenide lens, a CCM system that has an imaging range of 18 mm (±68 nm) with an average spatial resolution of 2.46 μm (±44 nm) and another system with a 1.55 mm (±14 nm) imaging range with 0.86 μm (±30 nm) average lateral spatial resolution is demonstrated. In doing so, sevenfold increase in the imaging range for the system with 1.55 mm imaging when compared with previously reported systems with similar lateral spatial resolution is achieved. The proposed approach can be a powerful tool for confocal imaging of biological samples or surface profiling of industrial samples.
Depth of focus extension in optical coherence tomography using ultrahigh chromatic dispersion of zinc selenide
Maria N. Romodina, Kanwarpal Singh
Journal of Biophotonics
We report a novel technique to overcome<br>the depth-of-focus limitation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) using chromatic<br>dispersion of zinc selenide lens.<br>OCT is an established method of optical<br>imaging, which found numerous biomedical<br>applications. However, the depth scanning range of high-resolution OCT is limited by its depth of focus. Chromatic dispersion of zinc selenide lens allows to get high lateral resolution along extended depth of focus, because the different spectral components are focused at a different position along axes of light propagation. Test measurements with nanoparticle phantom show 2.8 times extension of the depth of focus compare to the system with a standard achromatic lens. The feasibility of biomedical applications was demonstrated by ex vivo imaging of the pig cornea and chicken fat tissue.
A Proposal to Perform High Contrast Imaging of Human Palatine
Tonsil with Cross Polarized Optical Coherence Tomography
Gargi Sharma, Asha Parmar, Franziska Hoffmann, Katharina Geißler, Ferdinand von Eggeling, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Kanwarpal Singh
The palatine tonsils provide the first line of immune defense against foreign pathogens<br>inhaled or ingested. However, a disruption in the epithelial layer within the tonsil crypts can lead to recurrent acute tonsillitis (RAT). Current imaging techniques suffer from poor resolution and contrast and do not allow a classification of the severity of RAT. We have developed a cross-polarized optical coherence tomography system. The system can detect a change in the polarization of the light after the light-tissue interaction. We demonstrate improved resolution and contrast in tonsil imaging with the developed method. Intensity, as well as retardance images of the excised tonsil tissue, were acquired. Features such as crypt epithelium, lymphoid follicles, and dense connective tissue were observed with improved contrast. Cross polarized optical coherence tomography can be a valuable tool in the clinic to evaluate palatine tonsils as it would allow visualizing common tonsil features without the need for any external contrast agent.
IEEE Photonics Journal
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well established imaging modality for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging in clinical settings. While imaging, care must be taken to minimize the imaging artifacts related to the polarization differences between the sample and the reference signals. Current OCT systems adopt complicated mechanisms, such as the use of multiple detectors, polarization-maintaining fibers, polarization controllers to achieve polarization artifacts free sample images.<br>Often the polarization controllers need readjustment which is not suitable for clinical settings. In this work, we demonstrate a simple approach that can minimize the polarization-related artifacts in the OCT systems. Polarization artifact-free images are acquired using two orthogonally polarized reference signals where the orthogonal polarization is achieved using a Faraday mirror. In the current approach, only a single detector is required which makes the current approach compatiblewith swept-source or camera-basedOCT systems. Furthermore, no polarization controllers are used in the system which increases the system stability while minimizing the artifacts related to the sample birefringence, polarization change due to the sample scattering, and polarization change due to the optical fiber movements present in the system.
Cross-Polarized Optical Coherence Tomography System with Unpolarized Light
Georg R. Hartl, Asha Parmar, Gargi Sharma, Kanwarpal Singh
Cross-polarized optical coherence tomography offers improved contrast for samples which<br>can alter the polarization of light when it interacts with the sample. This property has been utilized to screen pathological conditions in several organs. Existing cross-polarized optical coherence tomography systems require several polarization-controlling elements to minimize the optical fiber movement-related image artifacts. In this work, we demonstrate a cross-polarized optical coherence tomography system using unpolarized light and only two quarter-wave plates, which is free from fiber-induced image artifacts. The simplicity of the approach will find many applications in clinical settings.
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